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05. Outline Of Theory Of Ethnos.

There are many many units with which the scientists are dealing according to their specialization, e.g. (1) ethnical groups by ethnographers; (2) populations by biologists; (3) nations by historians, and students of political science; (4) regional groups by geographers; (5) social groups by sociologists; (6) religious and generally cultural groups by psychologists, historians of culture, and especially «philoso-phers» of the old sociological and ethnographical schools. These groups do exist as realities covering a certain mass of population which are the actual subjects of these investigations.

The study of a great number of ethnical units leads us to the conclusion that the units are very numerous, their size is variable, they are conscious of their existence, they possess means for mutual understanding, they are culturally more or less homogeneous, and they intermarry within themselves, i.e. they are endogamous. These are units in which the process of cultural adaptation takes place, where it is transmitted, and in which hereditary conditions are transmitted and modified, i.e. in which the process of biological adaptation, in the broadest sense of the phrase, is carried on. However, there are also very numerous cases which cannot be called «ethnical units» for the above conditions of adaptation are lacking: they are not sometimes homogeneous, they do not preserve a perfect endogamy and they possess no consciousness of their existence. Therefore, the ethnographer sometimes begins to operate with the regional groups, cultural groups, social groups and even mere abstractions when e.g. cultural groups are abstracted from the populations. It is thus evident that the ethnical units in the definition given above are not stable units, and yet sometimes they cannot be perceived. We can take, for instance, discussions regarding Gypsies, Jews, Manchus, Irish, and other cases. Yet, difficulties met with by the ethnographers, when they try to make up ethnographical maps, may be remembered here.

Still looser are populationes, studied by the biologists, when they are not differentiated into, for instance, ethnical units and regional groups. The populations have become units of biologists after the failure to prove the hypothesis as to the existence of sharply differentiated races. Owing to this the biologist is looking for a new unit. Sometimes he may happen to deal with the ethnical units, other times with the nations, rarely with the social, cultural and even religious groups. Generally, the tendency is that he is looking for a concrete group in which there are found similar physical conditions and in which transmission of hereditary conditions takes place.

When historians and students of political science are dealing with the nations they meet with the bold fact: these units may have very short existence, without passing over a period of a few years. Yet, up to the present time to my knowledge, nobody could give a clear definition of what «nation» actually is. The historians turn themselves to the ethnical units which again very often escape them as sizeable realities. However, there are «nations» which last for a very long time although their composition by the process of biological substitution may change altogether. So a «nation» may become a simple abstraction in so far as the aim of investigation is to deal with the populations, concrete groups.

Sometimes regional groups can be easily separated, but since in a great number of cases these groups are all the time shifting, and there is influx of new elements and loss of old elements, the region may become the same as a passenger train which crosses a great country in which the population of the train is always changing. Indeed, there are permanent conditions influencing selection in coaches of distinct classes or trains of different speeds according to the ticket price per mile, arid direction of the train, while the movement across varied regions is also responsible for the character of the selected population of the train at different moments. So one may very soon be misled by these permanent conditions. Such investigation will not actually deal with the concrete units in which the processes are going on, but it will deal with the selective conditions as they are manifested in the ever changing populations. By this remark I do not want to say that the occurrence of stable populations in regions is out of question; I only want to point out that the geographer very often and sometimes first ought to study conditions of populations, and thus the regional unit as such cannot always be used as a unit of investigation. Indeed, there are regional groups which for long generations stay at the spot, and these may be studied both ecologically and in their adaptive manifestations as concrete units.

Social groups formed on the basis; of economic activity and functional division of work in general are realties, but a sharp differentiation of social groups exists only in theory. The social groups actually are all the time shifting and there usually remains a large percentage of the population which cannot be classified at all. Therefore, in so far as the study of populations in social groups; is the sociologist's aim he cannot seize it as a permanently, existing unit. So the study of social groups leads us to the same study of selective factors. We are sometimes misled by the groups which have differentiated themselves to such a degree that they have become endogamous and homogeneous units, e.g. casts, «privileged» groups etc. which as I shall later show are merely new ethnical units the existence of which was stimulated by a social differentiation.

Religious groups are realities, but in some cam they are still less stable than the social groups. In their psychomental aspect they are observed by the psychologists and historians of culture as realities as long as they are formed, of the same populations, but when the religious groups are abstracted the investigation turns into an operation with a series of hypotheses the principal of which is that the psychomental condition may be identified with a population, the intra-ethnical political grouping in principle sometimes does not differ from the religious grouping, but their potentiality in covering a shifting population is so well known that we do not need to dwell on them. Still there may occur a perfect coincidence of population with religious grouping practising endogamy and naturally becoming a culturally homogeneous unit.

At last I want to mention cultural groups or groups which possess similar complexes of secondary adaptation. They may be realities as regional, social, and religious groups are, in so far as they cover the same population which is not differentiated by other characters, but when the cultural similarity is taken for that of populations, the philosopher permits himself to be carried on by a series of hypotheses which may be quite ingenious and attractive, but they are imaginary in their nature. Still, when the » philosopher» wants to remain near to the realities he comes to the populations, bearers of cultural complexes, or to the ethnical units, nations, regional groups, and even social groups. Still here there may be cases when common cultural complexes would coincide with the differentiated populations.

From the review given above of units dealt with by the specialists we may see two facts, namely,-first, these groups are created when the problem of unit is discussed from a static point of view, i.e. when the investigator believes that these are units which exist by themselves, as individuals exist, and when he postulates their continuity; second, they are different in their character for the investigators consciously or unconsciously approach them from a certain point of view, namely, that which is supposed to be their speciality. However, the deeper the investigator goes, the looser becomes the unit, fixed in static terms, and the more he has recourse to the aspects of units uncovered by his speciality [33].

Evidently the unit must be given a different character if it is intended to be used as a scientific tool.

All the above indicated units result from a similar process, in so far, as we can see from its final manifestations: more or less similar cultural complexes, speaking the same language, believing into a common origin, possessing group consciousness, and practising endogamy. This is a definition which corresponds to our definition of ethnical unit. However, not all of them are «ethnical units». In fact, we have seen that such a crystallization may occur in any group: groups implied by the environment, economic activity, psychomental com-plex, and especially peculiar conditions of interethnical milieu about which I shall speak later. Yet, such a crystallized state is not always observed and in some groups it rarely occurs, as for instance, in groups based upon religious and economic differentiation. This is a PROCESS which only may result in the formation of ethnical units, and this process 1 have called ETHNOS.

This process may be recognized in its different aspects, namely,

1. Ethnographical aspect, — as seen in similarity of cultural adaptation (secondary milieu), discovered by the ethnographers.

2. Psychomental aspect, — as seen e.g. in the similarity of language, disclosed by the linguists, and ethnographers.

3. Continuity aspect, — in so far as it is reflected in the existing conviction and tradition discovered by the historians.

4. Psychological aspect, — as seen in the fact of self-cognition as unit.

5. Biological (in a narrow sense) aspect, — as seen in the fact of confinement of the process of transmission of hereditary conditions and further physical changes discovered by the biologists.

I do not need to enumerate other signs of the process, but I want to point out that since we treat the unit from the dynamic point of view the process may be understood with certainty only being observed in time, i.e. whether at two moments there is the same situation or not. If different aspects of units are preserved during this period we may assert that they do exist as characters which are at least correlated with the process of crystallization of units and their opposition to other units. If there is noticed intensification of characters studied we may suspect that there is a process of further crystallization and thus this process may be characterized by its centripetal movement in the population affected by it, resulting in a gradual consolidation of the units. However, such a process may be also established by a combined analysis of social, psychological, economic, ecological, bio-logical and other conditions of the units. If there is disclosed a parallelism of differentiation in several aspects there may be suspected a deep centripetal movement which may result in a complete differentiation of groups into new ethnical units. The difficulty of diagnosis here consists in the fact that the causa prima may lay far from these conditions and their similarity may be due to a single but very «powerful» condition e.g. specific ecological condition, special biological condition or even their similarity may be due to the effect of interethnical pressure.

In observing these processes in a great number of instances, and in their various aspects we soon come to the discovery of a general fact, namely, that the similarity of elements of adaptation, conditions of environment, antibiological adaptation are not always correlated and even one of them may result in a strong centripetal movement, however, without producing a final effect of ethnical differentiation. Yet, they may have a quite opposite effect upon the existing group formed on the basis of centripetal movement. In fact, let us suppose a group with very strong internal centripetal movement conditioned by the similarity of language and established as a fact by historic and analytical methods. Within this group there may appear centripetal movement, as an effect of further cultural adaptation, in its turn conditioned by the discovery of local ways of adaptation, among smaller groups differentiated on the basis of difference of primary milieu. In reference to the former group the new groups will act as a disintegrating factor. So these forms of cultural adaptation («progress») will result in an opposite, centrifugal movement.

If we take any form of differentiation, be it individual, family, clan, professional economic, or any other form of adaptive differentiation implied by the need of new forms of general adaptation, they would appear within the groups, — where they exist, as elements of centripetal movement, and thus in reference to the larger units they would act as centrifugal force. The change of adaptation is a permanent condition of all living organisms and groups, for the environment does not remain invariable. There are seasonal variations, solar periodicity, and still longer periods of fluctuations, and perhaps gradual changes which require continuous re-adaptation. The living organisms by their morphological and functional adaptations (including cultural) create special conditions of centrifugal movements.

If we have a very strong centripetal movement annihilating centrifugal movement, there will be loss of power of local adaptation to the changing conditions of environment and this a loss of vitality especially under the conditions of interethnical equilibria; on the other hand if the centrifugal movement is too strong there will be no more cohesion between the newly formed units and thus the larger one will also lose its vitality [34].

If we now return to our definition of the unit we may express it as a dynamic effect of equilibrium which exists between the centripetal and centrifugal movements within the units. The unit may safely exist only on one condition namely, equality of tension of these movements which may be symbolized as there Σa = Σb. But if Σa > Σb there will be loss of adaptive elasticity (e. g. physical and cultural), if Σa < Σb there will be lose of total resistance (e.g. lack of resistance to the interethnical pressure and even biological «degeneration»). The origin of these movements may be different too. Ecological conditions and interethnical milieu are permanent, -but variable conditions, — which are not residing in the units, but most of the centripetal and centrifugal movements within the units are conditioned by the elements created within the units, and new elements are always created. This is, by the way, the reason why the classification of forms of centripetal and centrifugal movements may have only very relative theoretical interest [35].

Let us now take another step and approach the process here called ethnos from another side, namely, that of internal ethnical equilibrium. Under this term I understand a constant relation which exists between the quantity of population, territory occupied by it, and biological adaptation, the cultural adaptation being considered as one of special forms of biological adaptation. So we will have

= ω which I call constant of ethnical equilibrium.

This simple relation between the indicated phenomena was formulated (1912) by myself after theoretical studies into the problem of population, analysis of thousands of cases seen in ethnical units, and direct observation of a great number of ethnical units (first published in 1922). Several investigators have approached the same idea; but none of them formulated it in the above indicated expression and they did not take the next step; namely, to formulate consequences resulting from this constant. I may mention, e.g. names of Schmoller and others who calculated density of population for different types of economic organization; Lippert's and Sunner's ideas on land-ratio; R. Pearl who in 1924 put it at the basis of his investigation as a postulate (my »S» was regarded by him an cultural adaptation which point of view cannot be shared); A. Lotka in his treatment of equilibria makes a very near approach to the same idea — I do not now speak of those who gradually begin to follow this approach to the problem of ethnical unit.

I have in mind, when operating with this formula, that sooner or later the functional adaptation may be expressed as a certain quantity. At present we may only suppose that this element of the equation is of an energetic nature, — the consumption of energy and production of energy. So that theoretically we may continue with the differential treatment of our equation. Yet, it is evident that the quantity T and q must not be understood in a simplest manner. Indeed, the square kilometre of territory in the Sahara and in France, In the Mongolian plateau and in the Yangtse valley are not equivalent. A million of population with certain distribution of age groups is not equivalent to another million of a different population with a different distribution of age groups without speaking of energy production. Therefore, there ought to be introduced corrections for bringing T and q to certain standards.

The change of one of the element of the equation on the condition of constancy of equilibrium, produces a corresponding change of two or at least one of the elements,

Δq/SΔT= ω

whence we may see that the change of population may act as impulse of variation of culture and territory, and vice versa. So we have impulses of variations. Naturally, they must be taken relatively, as to the former quantity and as a factor affecting the system of equilibrium. Thus we have

±ist= ωΔq/q; ± isq= ωΔT/T; ±itq= ωΔS/S

It is evident that there may be positive and negative impulses. When they are positive and strong we may say that the unit is in the process of growth, — numerical, or adaptive, or in territory; when the unit shows negative impulses of variations it is indicative of a declining state. Zero impulses are indicative of stagnation and in given conditions of interethnical pressure, usually growing, being also indicative of a relative ethnical decline. In these cases we do not need to make ingenious explanations and justifications of the situation, but we have only to state the facts.

Since the impulse of variation produces a corresponding change of one of two of the other elements, the impulses and their effects will be equal. Thus if

±ist = ωΔq/q and ± isq = ωΔT/T, where ist = isq so ωΔq/q = ωΔT/T, whence Δq=qΔT/T

on the supposition that the culture remains the same. By the same reasoning we may thus formulate, -

T = S ΔS/T; S = S ΔT/T

the population being the same. I cannot go into the very interesting details as to the effects of the same impulses on different initial quantities, which in some combinations bring us a quite new light as to the history of some ethnical units, their growth and decline, also limitations for potential growth, etc. But I want to show some interesting situations. Let us take


with a constant population. Since in the system


the increase of S results in the decrease of T and vice versa, the process is analogous (perhaps even in its nature similar) to the loss of heat with the reduction of pressure in gases and vice versa. In the case of absolute saturation of territory, which is a theoretical proposition, and thus constant q, there will be created a situation when cultural growth will be zero for since the increase of T is zero, the increase of S will be also zero.

However, this may be considered as a condition of perfect stagnation which, as shown before, under varying conditions of environment is impossible. Then the cultural adaptation may be produced on account of essential morphologo-physiological changes, or in other words formation of a new species. This is just the process which we seem to observe in the substitution of animal species in the same territory. So, in a near future, perhaps, it will be possible to calculate in which conditions and approximately at which moment there may appear an entirely new species of man.

* * *

A special aspect of impulsive variations is growth of population according to the logistic curve of Verhulst-Pearl. In fact, we have such occurrences when there appears a new impulse of variations. For instance, there may be opening of a new territory, e.g. empty bottle for drosophila, territory taken from the ethnical groups of low resistance, like America, and Siberia, or introduction of an important adaptive condition, e.g. a new source of energy production, like steam, agriculture, etc. A complete consummation of the new territory or integral exploitation of a new form of adaptation cannot possibly be carried out at once for there are biological conditions of reproduction with their limitations, as period of gestation, and process of growth; and, in so far as cultural changes are concerned, there is a very delicate mechanism of re-adaptation of the psychomental complex for which there is also a limit to tempo of variations. Therefore the process will last a certain period of time covering at least several generations. The greater the impulse of variations, the longer the process. Yet, it will naturally proceed as it is with the autocatalytic chemical reactions expressed in well known Ostwald's formula

dx/dt = k,x (a-x) — k, x2, and after the integration

X/(A-X) = k(t-t), as a well known formula

dx/dt = ax x bx2 of autocatakinetic growth

The process of population growth when it is not disturbed and when it is forced by the impulse of variation of population proceeds in the same way. In fact, the formula of growth

x = (a/b)/(1 + edt)

is the same. It is interesting to note- that mathematician, Verhulst, came nearly a century ago to the same idea, as biologist experimentator, R. Pearl, which naturally greatly impressed students of population growth, and also produced a strong negative reaction. Naturally, I have put aside the question of mathematical expression of the process, — the facts are facts, but the formula does not cover, and cannot cover, all cases of growth, which ought to be emphasised. The process of growth is not as simple as it was first represented by W. Ostwald, and quite successfully applied to the cases such as growth of flies and infusoria confined to a limited space, or to the small and rather simple organisms. After the publication of T. D. Robertson's work on growth of organisms this has been noticed by his critics, and several attempts were made to introduce corrections. There was introduced, for instance, volume of the body, a quantity variable during the growth. Yet, even with this important correction the formula of growth cannot be regarded as representing the actual process, for there ire conditions which were originally overlooked, namely, the constructive limits, a variable condition since the composition of the materials of constitution does not remain the same during the process of growth. Therefore this formula can represent only a part of the phenomenon. Particularly, in the human organism during the growth there are formed different limits which actually result in a sequence of unachieved logistic curves, and as a whole the process of growth cannot be represented in a scheme. Whether there are two, as suggested by C. B. Davenport, or three cycles as suggested by T. B. Robertson's and his followers, or even more cycles now has no more importance for we are facing a different problem, — a changing system of equilibria [35].

I have dwelt upon the process of individual growth for the growth of population in principle does not differ, from it. Yet we meet with the same kind of difficulties which are met with on the way in representing growth of population in a simple and general form of logistic curve. These are volume of growing units, change of the constructive possibilities, and substitution of components of a differentiated population. But even a successful solution of these difficulties will not permit us to generalise the process. Personally I think that for some simple cases corrections may be found, — and it will soon be done, — and in these cases the process of population growth will be represented as a series of interrupted logistic curves, but there is one more variable condition residing outside the growing units, namely, the inter-ethnical milieu from which the growing ethnical units can-not be separated to be studied in abstracto. At last, it is very questionable whether in general it is possible to carry out this investigation since the units of man, as shown before, are not individuals, but only effects of a certain process (ethnos), and as such they cannot be identified with the populations, especially populations of functionally and morphologically homogeneous infusoria and drosophila. This is an old story, — the analogies are taken for identity: a common methodological error. However, by these remarks I do not reject the facts and their short formulation by Verhulst-Pearl, so I shall now return to this phenomenon in its special aspect.

Without assuming that the process of population growth is generally represented as a completed logistic curve, or that it may be a series of incompleted curves, let us take a special case of growth expressed in a logistic cycle which will help us to approach some other and even more complex problems. At the beginning of a cycle, as well as at the end of it the tempo of variations, which


is slow, while in the middle period it is fast; during the first half of the process it is always increasing, while during the second half it is decreasing. From the point of view of adaptation to the tempo there is enormous difference between the behaviour of the ethnical unit during the first and second halves of the cycle, as well as at its beginning and at its end. Since different tension of adaptation at different periods is required we may ask ourselves a question of theoretical under practical importance: are there limits of the tempo? The answer is positive and we do not need to go into rather doubtful reasoning as to ethnical psychology, racial adaptability and other usually imaginative speculations. In fact, in respect to S in its cultural manifestations, the tempo cannot exceed that of an integral use of a new element which has required certain expenditure of stored energy in the ethnical unit. I now give a rough example for illustration. The change of method of production is practicable, as a system of adaptation, only after the amortization of the capital spent on the innovation. When a railway is built up for using steam power, the latter cannot be reorganized into electrical power two years after the completion of construction, — it would mean loss of all locomotives, expenditure on additional creation of electrical plants and system of transmission of energy, without speaking of a complete change of technical staff [36].

For the same reason the system of social organization which presumes certain specialization (in technique) of social groups cannot be changed before the former system is integrally used. In fact, in the matter of social changes the limitations of tempo are still greater, for a new social system, to be efficient, must be balanced with the psychomental complex, which is extremely slow in its variations, and seems to involve physiological conditions of units as well. In fact, every change in the form of adaptation requires a certain psychomental reaction, the intensity of which will be greater when there is rapid tempo of variations,-

ri/t = ρ

Thus, e.g. the tension of reaction during the change of cultural phenomena, implied by the impulse of growth of population, the formula will be:

rωΔq/qt = ρ (tension)

Indeed, in different ethnical units this potential tension has its limits, and is partly conditioned by the existing tempo (the existing inertia), partly by the physiological conditions of the units which are not alike, and at last partly by the impossibility of an essential change of the psychomental complex during the same generation. All these conditions are responsible for the creation of certain limits of potential tension of reactions, or limits of psychomental efficiency In the process of variations of ethnical equilibrium. After these remarks I shall now give some illustrations as to new aspects of the situation during the process of impulsive variations.

In the first half of the cyclic process we have thus gradual increase of tempo and together with it a gradual increase of psychomental tension. If this tension passes over the potential limit, typical of the unit, it may break down and this may assume various forms of disfunction or even a complete collapse of the unit may occur. When the point of flexion is passed another and quite special form of adaptation is required; namely, decrease of tempo of variations and various limitations resulting therefrom, such as regulation of birth, marriage, etc. which do produce a new tension in the psychomental complex. The psychomental complex at these periods usually shows signs of instability which may result in the loss of internal equilibrium of the unit. Here, we touch upon a delicate problem of the psychomental complex which may be treated from the pathological point of view. However such a treatment approached from the point of view of individual pathology cannot be successful. In the best case it would be possible to describe its mechanism, but the causes lying beyond the phenomena of «pathology» will remain hidden. Indeed, the range of normal variations of the normal and abnormal individuals is also affected. Therefore the psychiatrist may greatly help in the diagnosis and analysis of the condition of instability in units, but a pathological approach to the masses of population and individuals cannot explain the phenomenon as a whole. A very great tension may result in its breaking and the functional collapse of the unit. Such collapses rather often occur in ethnical groups and they may produce what in popular language are called «revolutions» [37].

I have mentioned these cases of the breaking down of the ethnical equilibria because of the breaking of the tension of the psychomental complex which we approach with the theory of ethnos; but the same can be done empirically in every case, if there are keen persons who may take into account all details of the process. This may be compared with a driver who before using a new road empirically studies whether his horses can climb up the hill with the full load, or not; and if not, he either harnesses one more horse or puts down a part of his load, or he may look for another road. The engineer after calculating, may tell beforehand which angle of elevation is possible and he will not need to carry out experiments in which a common driver may lose his horses and load. The engineer's work becomes quite indispensable in modern methods of transport, — railways and motor-roads, — so that without his theoretical work the keeping of roads is practically impossible. Seemingly we come to the same condition in the life of ethnical units within which the tempo of variations becomes more and more accelerated.

* * *

I shall now return to the problem of interethnical milieu which, as I have pointed out, may change process of growth and affect ethnical equilibrium up to producing a complete collapse. For this reason the treatment of ethnical units in isolation is impossible, and the interethnical milieu ought to be studied with a special care. We have already seen that the centripetal movement in groups, differentiated on the basis of forms of adaptation, may result in the creation of ethnical units. In studying a great number of facts we may see that there exist great a number of units of different size, big and small ones, which form what I called interethnical milieu. The relations between the units are defined by a peculiar system of equilibrium which exists between the given unit and other units. So the greater the power which is possessed by the unit the stronger may be the pressure sustained by the unit. It is evident that the power of the unit consists in the number of the population (q), its adaptive power (S), and territory with which it is bounded. The power of the unit becomes qST=f, or if we substitute for ST q/ω from the equation of ethnical equilibrium we shall have f = q(q/ ω) or f = (1/ ω)q2

However, the actual power of the unit may be valued only when all pressures produced by other units are considered. Let us suppose that the unit is surrounded by a group of other units each of which has impulses of variations as to the population, adaptation, and territory, we may write the sum of impulses produced by the unit as 

Σі= ω Δq/q + ω ΔS/S + ω ΔT/T, and if there are several units, we may symbolise as Σі = Σіsq + Σіst + Σіtq.

The unit opposes the sum of pressures by its resistance which is naturally equal to the pressure, for otherwise the unit will be either swallowed by other units, or it will swallow other units. Thus the actual value of the unit will be 

f Σі = Є or Є = ωq2 Σі

This is a new expression of the ethnos in the system, of interethnical equilibrium in terms of potential energy of interethnical milieu. If we consider the internal conditions of a unit found in the relation between the centripetal and centrifugal movements we may have a complete characterization of the unit in reference to its internal structure and system of existing equilibrium.

We have seen that the stronger the centripetal and centrifugal movements, the stronger adaptive resistance of the unit which may be symbolized as 

ωq2 Σі (Σa + Σb)

but since the outcome of the process may go along the lines of further centripetal and centrifugal movements which depends on the difference between Σa and Σb we may thus express the equilibrium of the unit as 

β = ωq2 Σі (Σa + Σb) (Σa — Σb)

where (Σa — Σb) may be 0 and there will be reached an absolute stability of the unit in the system of moving interethnical and ethnical equilibria [38]. In the case of difference between two movements the process of «petrification» of the unit may begin when there is excess of positive movement; and the process of «disintegration», if there is excess of negative movement. The stronger the unit, and the stronger the original centripetal and centrifugal movements, the stronger the process of always increasing disequilibrium, for

(Σa + Σb) (Σa — Σb) = (Σa)2— Σb)1

In the units which possess a numerous population and which are under a strong interethnical pressure the process of «petrification» and «disintegration» proceeds with an enormous and always increasing speed; when the relations of the ethnical units on the interethnical milieu are considered, different situations are created. So if the internal movements give a positive excess, the power will be positive, and aggressive behaviour will be natural, while if they give a negative excess the power and behaviour will be recessive. This also gives us an idea how the process of disintegration of units may proceed under the pressure of interethnical milieu alone, and that the process of disintegration of large units may proceed with a greater speed than that of small units [39].

When we do not abstract ethnical units from their natural milieu it becomes then evident that the impulses of variation may come out as effect of the interethnical pressure, and thus all the internal power of the unit for self-adaptation may be spent producing equilibrium in the midst of other ethnical units and there will be left no more impulses for the internal benefit of the unit in the sense of its further growth and stabilization. Therefore it is also clear that there may be changes of S (bio-cultural adaptation) and there will be no effect on q and T. Yet, the process of population growth, according to the logistic curve, may be altered and even interrupted by the inter-ethnical pressure, so that the practical application of this principle is possible only in the exceptional cases of isolated units, and perhaps leading ethnoses [40]. In spite of this, in a great number of cases its application is important, even as revealing the character of disturbing factors.

The theory of ethnos may be easily applied to plants and other animals, in which the phenomena in some respects are more obvious and in some other respects may become more difficult for understanding. They are simpler because of relative paucity of secondary functional (cultural) adaptation, but they are more difficult because of the slowness of the process of change of adaptation. We hope that a careful and wise application of the theory of ethnos to the other animals and perhaps plants will permit us to dismiss a series of postulates and hypotheses which are no more needed for understanding the process of physical changes. So the theory of ethnos brings our ideas near to the realities, as to phenomena of both cultural and physical adaptation, and at the same time it formulates the nature of changes in a simple, although purely theoretical form, of modern functional thinking dealing with the differential processes. The naive nominalism, so called laws, teleology, evolution and other products of the last century's science are now no more needed. I hope that in a relatively near future it will be possible to treat these phenomena in terms of energy-matter conception, the problem of matter in so far as it is expressed in the populations being left to the applied science and the latter may grow from «driving» mentioned above, to a real «engineering» [41]. Yet, I think those who first will master it, will have more chance to become a new leading ethnos which at present seems to be absent.

33. I shall not now go into the details of the problem as to how it happened that a static point of view was assumed and an artificial narrowing of the angle, under which various aspects of the units were considered, was created but I want to point out that they were conditioned by the trend of the science of the last century which attempted simplifications, classifications, and generalizations — without being supplied with a sufficient amount of facts and which relied upon philosophical premises more than might be admitted. As a matter of fact, there is nothing new in this situation. It has happened before, and, it may be supposed, will again happen with the phenomena imperfectly investigated.

34. Vide some more details as to centripetal and centrifugal movement in Aspects, sections 5 (pp. 19-26) and 15 (pp. 56-60).

35. Application of the theory of ethnos to the problem of growth is found in my publication Process of physical growth among the Chinese, vol. I. Shanghai, 1914 and especially in Growth and Ethnos in which I treat new Chinese material.

36. This is, by the way, the reason why in the countries with a very complicated industrial system, when the tempo of variations is very rapid, industrial reconstruction is practically impossible, while it is very easy in the countries of low industrialization. It may also be remarked that in such countries in this condition there appear a series of interesting phenomena, like self-limitation in reproduction of species, obstinate conservatism, and tendency to propagate the same ideas among other ethnical units in view of their weakening. This may be understood or it may go on unconsciously as it is with most of similar phenomena. Indeed, when I am speaking of this limitation I do not mean to say that it is never transgressed by the ethnical units. Such an occurrence is common especially under the conditions of changed interethnical pressure (vide infra) but if it is repeated too often the consequence is evident, — the ethnical unit becomes weaker, so that it cannot resist interethnical pressure and perishes or it is disintegrated owing to the military pressure or owing to the increase of centrifugal movement within the former unit chiefly stimulated by the interethnical pressure. Therefore, this limitation is not an absolute one and it becomes effective only in the system of interethnical and ethnical equilibria.

37. In this connection I want to point out that in the history of ethnical units «revolutions» are of great and vital importance, so I shall pause to discuss this phenomenon. There are three kinds of revolutions, namely, those implied by the maladjustment in the process of variations which may require a sudden change; those which are caused by the interethnical pressure; and those which are mere reactions of the psychomental complex on the change of existing inertia of variations. The last case practically is much more frequent than the first two types. The effect of the first one is that the process of growth is not affected and a readjustment can take place while in the second and the third cases the unit usually pays a high price with the loss in tempo, very often with the loss of population, and even a loss of territory taken by other units. The revolutions of these two types are sometimes like the effect of a sudden arrest of movement. Energy is transformed into the heat and the body may explode.

38. It may be pointed out that a continuous survival of very small ethnical units in the midst of very strong and aggressive units loses its startling enigmatism, if we have before our eyes the relations shown above, expressed in formulae. As a matter of fact, interethnical stability of the smallest units may be very definite.

39. I now leave aside the very interesting question of variability of these conditions, implied by distance and topography for this would take too much space. I shall only remark that the relations which are established between the units may be better compared with the principles deduced from phenomena of physics. Some of them may be directly applied. As a matter of fact, it is not surprising at all for in the body of ethnical units we have phenomena analogous to liquids: populations bound by psychic cohesion.

40. Vide infra Section 6.

41. When I am mentioning «engineer» it should not be taken for a hint to the so-called technocracy lately discussed. It is common that political, social and professional groups have an ambition of taking the control of the governmental apparatus. Any of them may become good after a certain experience in governing and any one may fail, but as soon as they become professional «rulers» they lose their former character. From this point of view it is of no importance whether they originally were engineers, lawyers, bankers, liberals, conservatives. The practical question is how costly may be for a nation to change the groups should it be actually needed. The engineers, as well as other specialists, are needed by a good government for consultation only. The need of having good specialists, including engineers, is evident, but it cannot suffice for convincing nations that these special professional groups must become government. Indeed, one of reasons of this «movement» is that a great number of unemployed engineers are seeking for work.

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